Saturday, June 4, 2011

How to read error codes on Ford vehicles?

Reading Codes



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Fig. Fig. 1: Inexpensive scan tools, such as this Auto Xray®, are available to interface with your Ford vehicle



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Fig. Fig. 2: When using a scan tool, make sure to follow all of the manufacturers instructions carefully to ensure proper diagnosis

EEC-V EQUIPPED ENGINES



The EEC-V equipped engines utilize On Board Diagnostic II (OBD-II) Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC's), which are alpha-numeric (they use letters and numbers). The letters in the OBD-II DTC's make it highly difficult to convey the codes through the use of anything but a scan tool. Therefore, to read the OBD-II DTC's on these vehicles it is necessary to utilize an OBD-II compatible scan tool.

  1. Ensure that the ignition switch is in the OFF position.
  2. Apply the parking brake.
  3. Ensure that transmission gearshift is in either Park (automatic transmissions) or Neutral (manual transmissions).
  4. Block the rear wheels.
  5. Turn off all electrical loads, such as the heater blower motor, the radio, the rear defroster, etc.
  6. Connect the scan tool to the Data Link Connector (DLC-3.8L and 4.6L engines) or the Assembly Line Diagnostic Link (ALDL-5.0L engine). Make certain the test button on the scan tool is unlatched or up.
  7. Turn the ignition switch to the ON position without starting the engine (KOEO).
  8. Using the scan tool, retrieve and record any continuous memory DTC's.
  9. Turn the ignition switch to the OFF position.
  10. Start the engine and run it until normal operating temperature is reached.
  11. Turn the engine OFF and wait 10 seconds.
  12. Turn the ignition switch ON but do not start the engine.
  13. Activate the KOEO self-test. Retrieve and record any KOEO DTC's after the KOEO test is complete.

Ignore DTC 1000.

  1. If any DTC's were present, refer to the accompanying OBD-II charts to locate the problem(s).

EEC-IV EQUIPPED ENGINES



The EEC-IV equipped engines use an older diagnostic system to monitor and report engine related malfunctions. This older system is known as On Board Diagnostics (OBD-I). The Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC's) are two or three digit numbers, and can be read through the use of a scan tool, an analog voltmeter, or with the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) located on the instrument cluster. Use the accompanying OBD-I DTC charts to decipher the DTC's for the identification of the malfunctioning component or circuit.

Scan Tool Method
  1. Connect the scan tool to the self-test connectors. Make certain the test button is unlatched or up.
  2. Start the engine and run it until normal operating temperature is reached.
  3. Turn the engine OFF and wait 10 seconds.
  4. Activate the test button on the STAR tester.
  5. Turn the ignition switch ON but do not start the engine.
  6. The codes will be transmitted. Six to nine seconds after the last code, a single separator pulse will be transmitted. Six to nine seconds after this pulse, the codes from the Continuous Memory will be transmitted.
  7. Record all service codes displayed. Do not depress the throttle during the test.
  8. Afdter the test, compare the DTC's retrieved with the accompanying OBD-I code identification charts in the Specifications Charts.

Analog Voltmeter Method

In the absence of a scan tool, an analog voltmeter may be used to retrieve stored fault codes. Set the meter range to read DC 0-15 volts. Connect the positive lead of the meter to the battery positive terminal and connect the negative lead of the meter to the Self-Test Output (STO) pin of the diagnostic connector.

Follow the directions given previously for performing the scan tool procedure. To activate the procedure, use a jumper wire to connect the signal return pin on the diagnostic connector to the self-test input connector. The self-test input line is the separate wire and connector with or near the diagnostic connector.

The codes will be transmitted as groups of needle sweeps. This method may be used to read either 2 or 3 digit codes. The Continuous Memory codes are separated from the other codes by 6 seconds, a single sweep and another 6 second delay.

  1. After the test, compare the DTC's retrieved with the accompanying OBD-I code identification charts in the Specifications Charts.

Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) Method

The Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) on the dashboard may also be used to retrieve the stored codes. This method displays only the stored codes and does not allow any system investigation. It should only be used in field conditions where a quick check of stored codes is needed.

Follow the directions given previously for performing the scan tool procedure. To activate the tests, use a jumper wire to connect the signal return pin on the diagnostic connector to the Self-Test Input (STO) connector. The self-test input line is the separate wire and connector with or near the diagnostic connector.

Codes are transmitted by place value with a pause between the digits; Code 32 would be sent as 3 flashes, a pause and 2 flashes. A slightly longer pause divides codes from each other. Be ready to count and record codes; the only way to repeat a code is to recycle the system. This method may be used to read either 2 or 3 digit codes. The Continuous Memory codes are separated from the other codes by 6 seconds, a single flash and another 6 second delay.


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